Select an Evidence Based Program

Section 2.9

Obtaining funding

EBPs require a financial commitment from implementing organizations. Some programs can be implemented for a few hundred dollars, while some programs require several thousand dollars for successful implementation. The costs of developing and evaluating an EBP can be significant, so program developers will often collect licensing fees or similar charges in order to recover research and development costs or cover the costs associated with ongoing administration of a program. Several potential funding sources for EBPs are discussed below.

  • Existing funds — Some organizations can use financial resources they already have to fund a new EBP. For example, the funding used to support a program that is ending could be reallocated to fund the new program.
  • Charitable organizations and foundations — Many national, regional, and local charitable organizations and foundations offer grants. It may be especially beneficial to seek funding from groups that serve specific populations (e.g., senior adults, particular ethnic groups, individuals with specific diseases).
  • Healthcare organizations — Some healthcare organizations, including non-profit hospitals, private physicians’ practices, managed care organizations, and Federally Qualified Health Centers, offer financial and in-kind support to community organizations that implement EBPs. In general, it is useful to demonstrate how an EBP will save healthcare dollars, reduce healthcare utilization, attract and retain clients, and generate social capital when applying for funding from healthcare organizations.
  • Medicaid — In some states, organizations can be reimbursed through Medicaid waivers or Medicaid state plans for Medicaid patients’ participation in EBPs. Currently, this occurs on a small scale, but it is becoming more common. Reimbursement opportunities vary from state-to-state, so details should be sought from your respective state Medicaid office. In Texas, organizations currently cannot be reimbursed by Medicaid. Many senior health advocates are working to change this.
  • Advocacy — By advocating among city, county, and state lawmakers, organizations are sometimes able to increase the funding that is available for health promotion and disease prevention programs.
  • Senior housing — Assisted living facilities, Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities, and HUD-funded facilities are sometimes willing to provide funding for the provision of EBPs for their residents. At minimum, these facilities can provide in-kind facilities for program sessions.
  • Participants — Organizations can request donations from participants or charge fees for program participation. Some organizations balk at the thought of charging participants to participate in a health promotion program; however, charging participants may actually be beneficial in increasing the perceived value of the program and increasing participants’ commitment to complete the program. Fees can be determined on a sliding scale to encourage people of all income levels to participate. An alternative is charging participants for certain components of a program, such as workbooks, program t-shirts, or other supplies.

Glossary of Terms

Toolkit Glossary

scroll to see all

Adaptation– Making changes to an evidence-based program in order to make it more suitable for a particular organization and/or audience.

Baseline – A starting point. In evidence-based programming, the term “baseline” is usually used in the context of data collection, where baseline data is data collected before a program is implemented.

Credentials – A testimony of qualification, competence, or authority issued to an individual by a third party. Examples of credentials include academic diplomas, academic degrees (e.g., MSW, MPH, PhD), licenses (e.g., MD, RN, LCSW), certifications (e.g., CHES, CPR, first aid), and security clearances.

Evidence – Facts or testimony in support of a conclusion, statement, or belief. In some settings, individuals may refer to “levels of evidence” or “types of evidence.” These terms will have specific definitions unique to the setting in which they are used. When referring to evidence-based programs, the term “evidence” is generally used to describe the findings or results of program evaluation studies.

Evidence-based program – A program that has been thoroughly evaluated by researchers who determined it produces positive outcomes.

Fidelity – The extent to which a program is being implemented as its developers intended for it to be.

Implementation – Putting into action or carrying out a program.

Instrument – A measurement tool. Instruments can take many forms including biomedical equipment (e.g., glucometer, blood pressure monitor, weight scale), pencil and paper tests, questionnaires, and interviews. A thermometer is an instrument used to measure body temperature. Likewise, a survey is an instrument that can be used to measure anxiety.

Medicaid – A publically-funded health insurance program for individuals who have low incomes and fall into certain categories of eligibility.

Objectives – Specific, measurable steps that can be taken to achieve goals.

Peer review – When experts review a professional’s performance, research, or writings. Peer review is a way that qualified professionals self-regulate their professions. Performance, research, or writings that pass the peer review process have increased credibility or trustworthiness.

Program champion – An individual who advocates for a program.

Quality assurance- A collection of planned, systematic activities applied to ensure that the components of a program are being implemented well.

Secondary data – Previously collected data that is being used for a purpose other than that for which it was originally collected.

Theory of behavior change – An attempt to explain how and why people change their behaviors. Researchers typically generate theories of behavior change from research in the fields of psychology, education, health, and other social sciences. When developing evidence-based programs, researchers will select a theory or components from several theories to guide program development.

Audience – The individuals for whom you implement your program. Depending on your setting, these individuals may also be referred to as a target population, population of interest, or clientele.

Buy-in – Typically used in the business world, buy-in refers to a financial exchange. In the context of health programs, the buy-in of stakeholders (community members, organizational leaders, participants, etc.) is generally non-financial. It involves their acceptance of a concept, idea, or proposal.

Data – A collection of facts, such as measurements and statistics.

Evidence-based practice – When clinicians (e.g., doctors, nurses) base their healthcare treatment decisions on the findings of current research, their clinical expertise, and the values/preferences of their patients.

Evidence-informed practice or program – A practice or program that is guided by theories and preliminary research. While there is some indication that these practices and programs produce positive outcomes, the evidence is too weak to refer to them as evidence-based. These are sometimes referred to as “promising” or “emerging” practices and programs.

Goals – General, non-measurable intentions or outcomes.

Incentives for participation – Factors that motivate an individual to take part in a program. Organizations sometimes provide incentives to encourage participants to begin and/or remain enrolled in a program. Common incentives include gift cards and program t-shirts.

Intervention – Organized efforts to promote health and prevent disease. This term is used because the efforts intervene, or come between, an individual and a negative health outcome in an attempt to prevent or delay the negative outcome. “Intervention” and “program” are often used interchangeably.

Interventionist – An individual who implements or carries out the components of a program.

Lay leaders – Individuals who do not have formal healthcare credentials who are trained to lead evidence-based programs.

Medicare – A publically-funded health insurance program for adults over age 65 and individuals with certain disabilities or health conditions.

Partnership – A cooperative relationship between two or more organizations that collaborate to achieve a common goal through the effective use of knowledge, personnel, and other resources.

Primary data – Original or new data being collected for a specific research goal.

Protocols - Predefined procedural methods. Examples include detailed program implementation procedures, required equipment, required data collection instruments with detailed instructions for administration, and recommended safety precautions.

Readiness – The degree to which an organization is prepared or ready for something.

Stakeholder – Any individual or group that has a stake or interest in a program.

Translation – The process of taking a program originally implemented in a controlled, laboratory-like setting and making it suitable for implementation in the community.

Table of Contents